WartimeMobilization (notes below correspond to numbers in this marked-up excerpt of Danke Li’s Echoes of Chongqing: Women in Wartime China)

  1. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident was a skirmish in early July 1937 that was the initial engagement of the Sino-Japanese War.
  2. Zhang Zizhong (1891-1940) was a Chinese general who was killed in action on May 16, 1940. He was seen as an effective and patriotic commander by both the Nationalists and Communists. The general was purged from historical memory during the Cultural Revolution, but starting in the 1990s the mainland Chinese government rehabilitated Zhang.[1]
  3. The ZFWZKJZ was a major women’s mobilization group that operated in Chongqing during the war.
  4. The Japanese began attacking Wuhan on June 1938 and captured the city on October 25. The fall of Wuhan created a refugee crisis as civilians from the city (and refugees from earlier battles) were forced to flee the Japanese army.[2]
  5. Yichang is a city located roughly midway between Chongqing and Wuhan on the Yangzi River. Many refugees fleeing upriver would have passed through the city on their way to Chongqing.
  6. The XYCZFZW is the Women’s Directorial Committee of New Life Movement Promotion Federation, a major women’s mobilization group similar to the ZZEB and ZFWKZJZ.[3]
  7. Madam Jiang refers to Song Meiling (1898-2003), Chiang Kai-shek’s wife. During the war she was the ZZEB’s director-general.[4]
  8. Deng Yingchao (1904-1992) was a deputy director of the XYCZFZW during the war.[5]
  9. According to Rana Mitter, rice harvests in China declined from 1939 onward. In nearby Hunan province, the combination of locusts and a summer drought in 1942 created a famine in the region, though it is unclear how it affected Chongqing.[6]
  10. The Youth Army was another name for Alpha Force, an American-trained and equipped group of Chinese army divisions that was created in 1944.[7] The divisions included many former school students in their ranks. Alpha Force was assigned to defend Chongqing against further Japanese attacks.[8] There is some confusion here; Alpha Force/Youth Army was stationed in China and did not see action in Burma.
  11. Feng Yuxiang (1882-1948) was a Chinese warlord and KMT general. He fell out of favor from Chiang Kai-shek after opposing him in the 1930 Central Plains War and did not participate as a commander during the Sino-Japanese War. However, Feng’s sympathies with the Communists and his opposition to Chiang led to the People’s Republic to remember him as a “good” warlord.[9]

 

Bibliography

Hui, Samuel. “70th anniversary of Nationalist Youth Army marked in Taipei.” Want China Times. http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?id=20140604000113&cid=1101 (accessed October 19, 2015).

Li, Danke. Echoes of Chongqing: Women in Wartime China. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Mitter, Rana. Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937-1945. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

Romanus, Charles F., and Riley Sunderland. United States Army in World War II: China-Burma-India Theater – Time Runs Outs In CBI. Washington, DC: GPO, 1959.

Sheridan, James E. Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yu-hsiang. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966.

Tsui, Brian Kai Hin. “China’s Forgotten Revolution: Radical Conservatism in Action, 1927-1949.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2013.

Waldron, Arthur. “China’s New Remembering of World War II: The Case of Zhang Zizhong.” Modern Asian Studies 30, no. 4 (1996): 945-978.

[1] Arthur Waldron, “China’s New Remembering of World War II: The Case of Zhang Zizhong,” Modern Asian Studies 30, no. 4 (1996): 945-947.

[2] Rana Mitter, Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II, 1937-1945 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt), 168.

[3] Danke Li, Echoes of Chongqing: Women in Wartime China (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2010), 20.

[4] Brian Kai Hin Tsui, “China’s Forgotten Revolution: Radical Conservatism in Action, 1927-1949” (PhD diss., Columbia University, 2013), 137.

[5] Li, 180.

[6] Mitter, 266-267.

[7] Samuel Hui, “70th anniversary of Nationalist Youth Army marked in Taipei,” Want China Times, http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?id=20140604000113&cid=1101 (accessed October 19, 2015).

[8] Charles F. Romanus and Riley Sunderland, United States Army in World War II: China-Burma-India Theater – Time Runs Outs In CBI (Washington, DC: 1959), GPO, 56-70.

[9] James E. Sheridan, Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yu-hsiang (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966), 280-281.